A Capital City from Scratch: A Critical View on Plans for Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in the New Indonesian Capital (IKN)

Last changed: 22 May 2023
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Ifa Nur Ainina, Landscape Architecture – Master's Programme


Indonesia is constructing a new capital city from scratch called IKN (Ibu Kota Negara/Nusantara) that will be finished in 2045. The general master plan, including the current phase, the Government Precinct, applies the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) principle that emphasizes non-motorized mobility (walk and cycle) and public transportation hubs that can be reached within 10 minutes. However, although TOD reduces congestion and improves urban health and societal activity, it may induce gentrification, vacuum at certain times, and discourage early dwellers. Habits, thermal factors, walking environment, and motorcycle dependence challenge the 10-minute concept in Indonesia. So, the objective is to identify the Walk and Transit plans based on the study case of Sejong City, South Korea’s new administrative capital city constructed in 2007 and shares similar TOD approaches, so IKN can learn from Sejong’s shortcomings and prepare for potential issues. The study shows that IKN’s pedestrian environment and the public transport plan have complied with the standards, and the transport hubs are located within 10-minute proximity; however, the local context must be considered, such as the thermal comfort, modal shift, and vibrant activities outside of working hours. Sejong faced long walkways, limited parking lots, and insufficient BRT. IKN must implement a flexible design, regular assessment, and establish adjustments to prepare for unforeseen challenges. The success of TOD implementation in IKN can serve as a model for future TOD mega projects worldwide.


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